Final year degree project for engineers Final year projects based on microcontrollers
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AT89s51 microcontroller projects Motion control
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Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Liquid Crystal Display LCD

The HD44780 dot-matrix liquid crystal display controller and driver LSI displays alphanumeric characters and symbols. It can be configured to drive a dot-matrix liquid crystal display when interfaced with a processor. A single HD44780 can display up to one 8-character line or two 8-character lines. The HD44780 supports 8 dot character fonts and 32 5 ´ 10 dot character fonts for a total of 240 different character fonts.

2.1 Function Description of LCD
The following section will introduce the user with some of the important features of the liquid crystal display, that are important for interfacing with the liquid crystal display through software.

2.1.1 Registers of LCD

The HD44780 has two 8-bit registers, an instruction register (IR) and a data register (DR). The IR stores instruction information, such as display clear and cursor shift, and address information for display data RAM (DDRAM) and character generator RAM (CGRAM). The DR temporarily stores data to be written into DDRAM or CGRAM and temporarily stores data to be read from DDRAM or CGRAM. Data written into the DR is automatically written into DDRAM or CGRAM by an internal operation. The DR is also used for data storage when reading data from DDRAM or CGRAM. When address information is written into the IR, data is read and then stored into the DR from DDRAM or CGRAM by an internal operation.

2.1.2 Busy Flag of LCD

When the busy flag is 1, the HD44780U is in the internal operation mode, and the next instruction will not be accepted. When RS = 0 and R/W = 1 (Table 1), the busy flag is output to DB7. The next instruction must be written after ensuring that the busy flag is 0. The following diagram can visualize the timing diagram for the busy flag check for the LCD.
instruction write busy flag check LCD how to check busy flag of LCD  DDRAM or CGRAM, Character Generator RAM
Checking the Busy Flag (BF) of LCD

2.1.3 Address Counter of LCD

The address counter (AC) assigns addresses to both DDRAM and CGRAM. When an address of an instruction is written into the IR, the address information is sent from the IR to the AC. Selection of either DDRAM or CGRAM is also determined concurrently by the instruction. After writing into (reading from) DDRAM or CGRAM, the AC is automatically incremented by 1 (decremented by 1). The AC contents are then output to DB0 to DB6 when RS = 0 and R/W = 1.

2.2 Initializing by Internal Reset Circuit of LCD

An internal reset circuit automatically initializes the HD44780 when the power is turned on. The following instructions are executed during the initialization. The busy flag (BF) is kept in the busy state until the initialization ends (BF = 1). The busy state lasts for 10 ms after VCC rises to 4.5 V.
1. Display clear
2. Function set:
DL = 1; 8-bit interface data
N = 0; 1-line display
F = 0; 5 ´ 8 dot character font
3. Display on/off control:
D = 0; Display off
C = 0; Cursor off
B = 0; Blinking off
4. Entry mode set:
I/D = 1; Increment by 1
S = 0; No shift

2.3 Pin Configuration

The pin configuration of LCD along with their functionality is shown below
Table 1: Pin Assignments of HD44780
Display on/off control Pin Configuration PIN number SYMBOL LEVEL Function of LCD

2.4 Instruction Set of LCD
Here is the instruction set summary of HD44780 LCD, also some explanation is provided in the following table.
Table 2: Instruction Set Summary of HD44780
Instruction Set Summary of HD44780


graphic lcd serial interface c code message display on small lcd screen with 8051 projects microcontroller at-89c51 based text editor cum moving message display l293d dc motor control

Sunday, May 22, 2011

Introduction of moving message display MMD using 8051

Introduction of Moving Message Display Using Liquid Crystal Display and Microcontroller 8051 family.

The objective of the project is to provide non-commercial and purely academic insight into microcontroller assembly programming. The over all goal of the project is to provide connectivity between a desktop computer, microcontroller and a HD44 compatible LCD.

Gold Rates Boards are widely used to display listing of product list, price list in corporate sectors, hotels, provision stores. Currency Display Board are widely used for displaying various currency rates at real time and thus find wide applications in various banks and money exchange counters.interest rate boards are in extensive usage and constantly in demand by various banks and money exchange counters.The microcontroller validates the SMS and then displays the. message in the LCD display board.

The end user will type the desired string on the desktop and the result can be displayed on the LCD, which is connected to the microcontroller on the circuit board. The end user also has access to attractive features to move the LCD display in a specified direction.

The LCD comes with a 14pin interface, which includes pins to receive power supply and ground as well. These 14pins have to be interfaced with microcontroller output ports to send instructions, which initialize the LCD in appropriate modes, and also to send data from the microcontroller is intended for display on the LCD output screen.

The microcontroller is interfaced with the desktop through a full-duplex serial port. The pins are utilized to send byte at a time. The byte sent from the desktop can consist of instructions for the LCD and the end user desired new string to be displayed on the LCD. The microcontroller is interfaced with the LCD with 11 pins. The pins are utilized to send byte at a time and three pins are utilized to set the instruction modes on the LCD. The details of their uses and the information they carry will be discussed in depth later on.

Functional Components of Moving Message Display MMD:

Main components used in the project are listed below:
• ATMEL 89C51 Microcontroller.
• HD44780 Liquid Crystal Display.
• Max 232 Serial Interface IC.

Block Diagram of the Functioning of the Moving message display:-

below is the block diagram of the moving messgae display using microcontroller.

LCD moving message display using microcontroller 8051 family MMD, microprocessor, LED text light, scrolling circuit diagram




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Saturday, May 7, 2011

Interface of mobile phone with micro-controller

How To Interface a mobile Phone with micro-controller 8051 family like at89s51, at89s52, at89c2051 etc.The project is aimed at developing and testing the use of mobile phones to remotely control an appliance control system. The microcontroller would then control an device based on the information given to it. The proposed solution will need to be easy to use, simple, secure, robust and be useful on most mobile phones. To achieve this testing will need to be carried out to create a useful system.
The report consists of a background into the area of 8051 microcontroller and mobile communication, how they are interfaced to each other and AT (Attention) commands set used in communication.ericsson at command microcontroller

The simplist method to interface a mobile with microcontroller is use mobile phone which support AT Commands. By using this we can directly connect that phone via datacable to microcontroller kit at a baud rate of 9600 and you can send AT commands to that mobile to read and send sms or other data of interest. The first thing in this regard is to find a mobile phone with AT Commands. Recommendation is use sony erricson's 290i . You can use any other mobile suitable for this purpose. The same program with slight modifications for AVR microcontroller. Which avr microcontroller you want to use and what is the sensor you want to interface.
After connecting a mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem to a computer, you can control the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem by sending instructions to it. The instructions used for controlling the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem are called AT commands. (AT commands are also used to control dial-up modems for wired telephone system.) Dial-up modems, mobile phones and GSM/GPRS modems support a common set of standard AT commands. In addition to this common set of standard AT commands, mobile phones and GSM/GPRS modems support an extended set of AT commands. One use of the extended AT commands is to control the sending and receiving of SMS messages.

This device acts as interface between your microcontroller project and a GSM phone. It handles all modem data communication between the GSM phone and your micro-project. The best thing is that it decodes PDU into TEXT on the fly! It’s based on PIC16F877A microcontroller running on 16MHz at 5V. It has an onboard level converter for serial communication with the gsm phone because PIC’s UART RX input pin has a Schmitt trigger triggering at 4,5 - 5V while the phone is sending only approx. 3V from it’s TX pin.
Control takes place by means of SMS (Short text Messages Service). When the mobile receives a predefined text message, like "alarm ON" or "Start pump", the circuit automatically recognizes it as a command, and switches the output accordingly.

At the componets level this project of mobile interfacing with microcontroller can be divided into these parts:-

1. Two mobile phones, one for general use and will be handled remotely, the second is specific mobile which will be interfaced with microcontroller 8051.

2. Microcontroller with necessary components inculding power supply, crystal, RS-232 components etc.

3. Interfacinf board, This is interfacinf board which will inculde the optocouplers, relays and other components required for interfacing of different input and output devices to microcontroller.

4. The hardware devices which are to be controlled through this projects will be connected to microcontroller usig above mentioned interfaing board.

The procdure for the mobile controlling of different hardware is very easy.

process begins on writing a SMS on mobile # 1, which will be transmitted to mobile # 2 through mobile networks. The second mobile will get that SMS and will transmit it to microcontroller via serial communication RS-232.
The micocontroller 8051 will check, if it is according to predefine commnad then, according action will be performed.

The whole process is explained in the diagram below.
Interface of mobile phone with micro-controller 8051

The device can be used as well to notify the status of the input port, sending automatically a message every time the input changes.To know input status at any time, the device can send back a SMS describing the status of the input, as a response to a request message.
GSM cellular phones can accept AT commands (more precisely an extension of the AT command set).
Serial Communication between mobile and Microcontroller:-
Many mobile have configuration to work on serial communication, i tried the following setting of serial communication 9600,N,8,1 on null modem. The mobile and microcontroller are configured on above setting and they worked fine.
Now it is time to do some communication with mobile using AT command:
The very basic command that can be used for serial communication check between microcontroller and mobile phone is "AT" command, so lets try it first. When microcontroller sends AT, then
AT (When microcontroller sends AT, then and the cell phone answered: )
OK (cell phone response)

The second command:-
First, tell the phone which memory to use for successive commands:

AT+CPMS="ME","ME" +CPMS: 7,15,7,15,7,15 (this string will be transferred from microcontroller)
OK (Acknowledge signal or message from mobile)

This instructs the mobile to use internal memory "ME" in place of the "SM" memory from the SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) as default memory. Next, a message can be read from that memory specifying its number:
AT+CMGR=4 (To mobile from microcontroller)
the mobile replies as under:
+CMGR: 1,,27 0791934329005000040C9193433728501400001060314104350809D02A735A043DAB54
OK

This is the fourth message, 1= received and read, 27 bytes long text, in PDU (Protocol Description Unit) format.
The PDU format is quite complex, as it contains many subfields packed together using different encodings. Among other things, it holds also service centre numbers, origin numbers, nation codes, a time stamp, and a descriptor of the character set used.

The next command frees precious mobile memory deleting the seventh message:

AT+CMGD=7
OK

You can test mobile with AT, it responds with OK

Then you can enable the text mode with AT+CMGF=1, to enable text mode and wait for OK.

Then at AT+CMGS="+923011111111" (send this to mobile from microcontroller)
You can change above number with your desired phone number, you will get a > prompt and here put your message followed by ctrl+z.
"the sensor is active and pump is ON"+ctrl+z
If you get OK, your message will be tramsmitted.

AT+CMGS="+923016666666"Sending text messages is easy.


You can use AT+CSQ to test signal strength.

The above codes will work with Ericsson T10s, T28 and R320 only. for other mobiles find their codes.

example code for above communication is as under:



Download software/ code written for microcontroller 8051 to Interface of mobile phone with micro-controller
Interface of mobile phone with micro-controller



ericsson at command microcontroller

MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAY USING ATMEL 89C51

 MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAY USING ATMEL 89C51


  • LED moving message diaply using PIC16f628 CD4017 and 74LS595 moving message display using 8051 microcontroller
    circuit diagram, layout, bloakdiagram of microcontroller-based moving message display powered by photovoltaic energy





  • This project is an implementation to provide interfacing and manipulative control of a HD44 compatible liquid crystal display using ATMEL 89C51 microcontroller. moving message display using 8051 microcontroller The software is able to display ASCII characters on the LCD display and also provides the additional and attractive feature of moving the display string in a unidirectional manner. The 89C51 microcontroller accepts string input from the desktop computer through parallel port interface between 89C51 microcontroller and desktop and display the string passed by the desktop user to the LCD Display.
    circuit diagram, layout, bloakdiagram of microcontroller-based moving message display powered by photovoltaic energy



    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1 Introduction of Moving message display

    Chapter 2 Liquid Crystal Display

    2.1 Functional Description
    2.1.1 Registers
    2.1.2 Busy Flag
    2.1.3 Address Counter
    2.2 Initializing by Internal Reset Circuit
    2.3 Pin Configuration
    2.4 Instruction Set

    Chapter 3 Introduction to 89C51 Microcontroller

    3.1 Memory Organization
    3.1.1 General-Purpose RAM
    3.1.2 Bit-Addressable RAM
    3.1.3 Register Banks
    3.1.4 Special Function Registers
    3.2 Input/output Ports
    3.2.1 Port 0
    3.2.2 Port 1
    3.2.3 Port 2
    3.2.4 Port 3
    3.3 Interrupts
    3.4 Two 16-bit Timers
    3.5 Serial Interface
    3.5.1 MAX 232 Serial Interface IC

    Chapter 4 Hardware Aspects of MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAY USING ATMEL 89C51

    4.1 Serial Port to Microcontroller
    4.2 Microcontroller to LCD
    4.2.1 Enable Signal Connection
    4.2.2 Read/Write Signal Connection
    4.2.3 Instruction/Data Signal Connection
    4.2.4 Busy Flag

    Chapter 5 Programming Aspects of MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAY USING ATMEL 89C51

    5.1 Code Overview

    LED MOVING MESSAGES displays:-
    Light emitting diodes are advan- tageous due to their smaller size, low current consumption and catchy colours they emit.An LED message display sign provides more space to display your led moving message in one line. Brighter and multi-color LED's are available, to give your moving message signs maximum impact. Advertise your daily specials, new products and services. Announce upcoming events at a moment’s notice. Welcome VIPs, guests, or important customers with impact. Promote employee safety, quality and health awareness programs. Within minutes you will be creating dynamic messages using the BetaBrite’s WYSIWYG software and your PC, or by using the infrared remote keyboard (software, RS232 9-pin serial port cables and infrared keyboard included). The display can be fixed on a veroboard of suitable size and connected to ground of a common supply (of 6V to 9V) while the anodes of LEDs are to be connected to emitters of transistors T1 through T7 as shown in the circuit. LED Signs can be controlled from a central location by using a PC running Windows message software and data transmitter with receivers for wireless display network. LED signs deliver high impact advertising. Displays are available in single line scrolling signs, two and three line boards, electronic billboards, true color large video walls and stock tickers.
    circuit diagram, layout, bloakdiagram of microcontroller-based moving message display powered by photovoltaic energy



    LCD Message Display :-

    This LCD message display can show text with large characters on an 20*4 LCD module. The display can show five characters at a time. Each characters is build from twelve characters of the display module. The text on the display can be read from up to ten meters distance.

    The data to build each character is stored in an external 24C32 serial EEPROM which has 4096 bytes of memory. The characters that can be shown on the display are: A to Z and 0 to 9. There are in total 35 characters so we need 35*12 bytes = 420 bytes. The text is also stored in the EEPROM.

    It is also possible to show the time and temperature on the display.






    ...
    ...
    Previous Page

    References
    1. Peter O. “How to Control a HD44780-Based Character-LCD”, 2005
    http://ouwehand.net/~peter/lcd/lcd.shtml
    2. I. Scott M. “The 8051 Microcontroller”, Printice Hall, New Jersey,1999
    3. Wichit S. “RSS232C Level Detector”, 2002
    http://chaokhun.kmitl.ac.th/~kswichit/MAX232/MAX232.htm
    4. Hantronix Inc.,”Displaying Characters on an LCD Character Module”
    http://www.hantronix.com/down/char-mod.pdf



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    led moving display,digital display systems,LED DOT MATRIX MOVING DISPLAY - Provides many types of LED Moving Sign Display for your business monitoring & promotion electronic moving,display boardsled message display at89c2051 programmer copier circuit diagram
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    Friday, May 6, 2011

    Development of Industrial scale weather station

    WEATHER MONITORING AND INSTRUMENT CONTROL SYSTEM USING MICROCONTROLLER

    Abstract of the Microcontroller based weather station.

    The project weather station is based on microcontroller 8051. The data acquisition from the sensors is transferred to host computer using RS-232 serial communication protocols. The data received from serial port is then showed at the webpage.
    Introduction:-
    The project (weather onitoring station) is based on the application of 8051 microcontroller (any microcontroller of 8051 family can be used). The data logger detects the environmental conditions & gives the relevant information to the user about the weather conditions such as temperature,humidity,rain fall level (etc). The information can be of great use for the monitoring of weather for the agricultural and industrial purposes. The information can be received by the user by various means such as direct display over lcd which is in built in the module itself, through the sms & through the web. The data logger can be used for the industrial applications. It monitors the temperature & detects the other parameters of weathor present at the particular place on real time basis. The information of the same is forwarded by the data logger itself as a sms to the supervisor informing on his cellphone about the rise in temperature or in some cases the chnage of parameters. This economical device (microcontroller based) is of great use for industrial purposes.
    The MAXIM 168 A/D converter is used to convert the analog signals from the sensors to digital signals that are used for interpretation within the microcontroller 8051.
    Sensor used in this project are :
    i. Temperature sensors
    ii. Humidity sensors
    iii. Wind speed and direction sensors
    iv. Tripping bucket rainfall sensors

    i. Temperature sensors:
    There are many types and kinds of Temperature sensors used in different applications. Some types of Temperature sensors are as follows:
    Thermocouples | Resistance – RTDs & PRTs & SPRTs | Thermistors | Labels & Crayons & Paints (Phase Change Devices) | Glass Thermometers (LIG) | Filled Systems Thermometers | Bimetallic Thermometers (Bimetal) | Semiconductor Thermometers (Integrated Circuits or ICs & Diodes) | Liquid Crystal | Thermowells | | Extension & Compensation Cable | Connectors | Cold Junctions
    But here in our project we will use LM35 temperature sensor, which analog temperature sensor and easy to use in application like this. The microcontroller has do little in the regard.
    ii. Humidity sensors
    Relative humidity/temperature and relative humidity sensors are configured with integrated circuitry to provide on-chip signal conditioning. Absorption-based humidity sensors provide both temperature and %RH (Relative Humidity) outputs.
    The humidity sensor could be used:
    Vaisala HUMICAP® Humidity and Temperature Transmitter Series HMT360
    HMT330,HMT360 ,HMT310 ,HMT120/130 ,HMD/W60/70 ,HMW80 ,HMD40/50 ,HMT300TMK
    HM44 ,HM70 ,HMI41 ,HMP155 ,OEM Modules ,HMM100 ,HMT330MIK ,DTR500 ,HMP60
    HMP110 ,HMK15 ,HM34 ,HIH-4000 Series ,HIH-3610 Series ,HIH Series
    But we will use HIH-4000 series humidity sensor in this project.

    iii. Wind speed and direction sensors

    Anemometer and wind vane with crossarm and power supply. Designed for demanding wind measurement applications. Vaisala Wind Set WA15 or Vaisala Wind Set WA25 or Vaisala Wind Sensor WM30 Combined mechanical wind speed and direction sensor. The WM30 is compact and light, rigid and affordable. Low power consumption makes it ideal also for mobile applications.Measures the horizontal wind speed using a Reed-contact which is activated by the revolution of the cup-star. Best price / performance-ratio for basic requirements, includes 20 m cable. Measures horizontal wind direction. The measuring values are output as ohmic resistance signals.
    iv. Tripping bucket rainfall sensors
    Vaisala DRD11A Rain Detector Vaisala Rain Detector DRD11A features fast and accurate precipitation detection (ON/OFF). The sensor operates via droplet detection rather than by signal level threshold. The capacitive principle utilizes the RainCap sensor plate. other sensors are QMR101
    QMR102 ,DRD11A ,RG13/RG13H


    The LCD display is displaying the main parameters of weather monitoring station which includes rainfall, air direction, soil moisture and humidity. As we already discussed The entire data is analog, these data is converted to digital data by ADC. The four channel digital signals are compared between exit and present data due to the embedded code; it is stored into flash memory of the microcontroller. The condition of the parameter is invalid then the microcontroller control motor and sprayer; it is depend on the wet or dry of soil and climates of the sky or heaven.
    Nomenclature used in the project is as under:
    MBE:-mean bias error
    RMSE:-root mean square error
    GSM:-global system of mobile communication
    GPRS:-general packet radio service
    RES:-renewable energy sources
    ADC:-analog-to-digital converter
    USART:-universal synchronous and asynchronous serial receiver and transmitter
    The Thermo-Hygrometer:-
    Thermo-Hygrometer is an important part of any weather monitoring station.
    The Thermo-Hygrometer measures outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Updating of information to the display unit occurs every 10-seconds.


    The Anemometer
    Anemometer is an important part of any weather monitoring station.
    The anemometer measures wind speed and direction. The anemometer wind speed operating range is up to 125 miles per hour and has a accuracy resolution of +/- (plus or minus) 0.4mph. In steady wind conditions the anemometer transmits new readings to the display unit once every minute; in gusty conditions, gust updating occurs every 14-seconds. Wind direction operating range is 0oF to 359oF. Data transmission to the display unit occurs every 5-seconds. The anemometer is powered by a solar cell with battery backup.


    The Rain Gauge
    Rain Gauge is an important part of any weather monitoring station.

    The Rain Gauge measures rainfall in millimeter increments reflecting current rainfall or accumulation of data from previous last reset. The Rain Gauge features a self-emptying rain collection unit. Daily rainfall sampling rate is every 24-hours
    Tags:-
    WEATHER monitoring station,rain MONITORING outside the room, INSTRUMENT used for wind monitoring, temperature CONTROLler and display, humidity measuring SYSTEM, weather station USING microcontroller 8051, which MICROCONTROLLER is best for the weather monitoring project,final year project about WEATHER MONITORING AND INSTRUMENT CONTROL SYSTEM USING MICROCONTROLLER, Which are the WEATHER MONITORING AND INSTRUMENT SYSTEM USING MICROCONTROLLER ppt,A microcontroller-based data-acquisition system for meteorological station monitoring

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    I am free lancer to design electronic circuits and programming or coding of microcontroller or microprocessor based projects. Interested people can contact me. Student of Engineering, learner of microcontroller can also contact for help in their projects. Please write your questions in comment section or directly e-mail to me. My e-mail address is : rghkk@hotmail.com Your E-mail should contain Subject: "Help on microcontroller 8051 project" Otherwise e-mail may be ignored. Help will also be provided on " final year degree project" in the field of code writing, microcontroller based project ddesiging and report writing of microcontroller projects. Contact for online lectures and classes of microcontroller also. Post your comments in relvent posts for quick response in 8051 projects posts.

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